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[1]刘凯,杨福田,谢英荷,等.减氮覆膜对黄土高原旱地小麦产量及氮素残留的影响[J].应用与环境生物学报,2020,26(03):619-625.[doi:10.19675/j.cnki.1006-687x.2020.01019]
 LIU Kai,YANG Futian,XIE Yinghe,et al.Effects of nitrogen reduction and film mulching on wheat yield and residual nitrogen in a dryland field experiment on the Loess Plateau[J].Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology,2020,26(03):619-625.[doi:10.19675/j.cnki.1006-687x.2020.01019]
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减氮覆膜对黄土高原旱地小麦产量及氮素残留的影响
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《应用与环境生物学报》[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

卷:
26卷
期数:
2020年03期
页码:
619-625
栏目:
研究论文
出版日期:
2020-06-25

文章信息/Info

Title:
Effects of nitrogen reduction and film mulching on wheat yield and residual nitrogen in a dryland field experiment on the Loess Plateau
作者:
刘凯杨福田谢英荷李廷亮张奇茹窦露柳玉凤纪美娟姜丽伟
1山西农业大学资源环境学院 太谷 030801 2朔州职业技术学院 朔州 036002 3山西农业大学农业资源与环境国家级实验教学示范中心 太谷 030801
Author(s):
LIU Kai1 YANG Futian2 XIE Yinghe1 3? LI Tingliang1 3 ZHANG Qiru1 DOU Lu1 LIU Yufeng1 JI Meijuan1 & JIANG Liwei1
1 College of Resources and Environment, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China 2 Shuozhou Vocational Technical College, Shuozhou 036002, China 3 National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China
关键词:
减氮覆膜黄土高原冬小麦产量氮素残留
Keywords:
nitrogen reduction and film mulching Loess Plateau winter wheat yield residual nitrogen
DOI:
10.19675/j.cnki.1006-687x.2020.01019
摘要:
明确减氮覆膜措施下冬小麦的产量变化规律和麦田土壤氮肥的利用效率及残留情况,可为旱地冬小麦的环境友好科学施肥提供理论依据. 于2013-2018年在晋南黄土旱塬冬小麦种植区,设置农户施肥种植模式(FP)、减氮测控施肥(MF)、减氮测控施肥+垄膜沟播(RFSF)和减氮测控施肥+平膜穴播(WFFHS)4种处理,分析在5年减氮覆膜条件下冬小麦产量、氮肥偏生产力、0-2 m土壤氮素残留分布和氮素平衡状况. 结果显示,减氮测控施肥在5年总施氮量减少46.9%、平衡增施磷钾肥的情况下,能够保障冬小麦产量处于稳定状态,氮肥偏生产力比农户模式提高120.3%,0-2 m土壤硝态氮残留量减少30.5%,氮素累积表观损失量减少72.9%,且差异均达显著水平. 在减氮测控施肥基础上覆膜种植后,使冬小麦产量提高9.46%-56.4%,氮肥偏生产力提高21.7%-41.4%,0-2 m土壤硝态氮残留量减少16.6%-25.8%,土壤累积表观矿化氮含量增加89.1%-127.8%,差异均达显著水平. 本研究表明通过减少氮肥用量和平衡施用磷钾肥可提高氮肥利用效率,降低硝态氮残留量和表观损失,并达到稳产的目的;同时在减氮测控施肥基础上进行覆膜,可进一步促进小麦对土壤养分的吸收利用,在提高小麦产量、降低硝态氮积累和减小环境污染风险方面具有显著的效应. (图3 表4 参36)
Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the effects of nitrogen reduction and plastic film mulching on winter wheat yield and the utilization efficiency and residue of nitrogen fertilizer in soil. To provide a theoretical basis for environmentally friendly and science-based fertilization in dryland areas, an experiment was conducted from 2013–2018 in dry highland habitat of the winter wheat growing region in Southern Shanxi. Partial factor productivity of nitrogen, residual distribution of nitrogen, and nitrogen balance were assessed in planting systems subject to four different cultivation treatments: farmer pattern, monitoring fertilization, monitoring fertilization plus ridge mulching-furrow planting, and monitoring fertilization plus whole field filming with soil covering and hole-seeding. The results showed that under the monitoring fertilization treatment over a period of 5 years, total nitrogen decreased by 46.9%, balancing the addition of phosphate and potassium fertilizer. This suggests that monitoring fertilization can ensure winter wheat yield remains stable: the partial factor productivity of nitrogen increased by 120.3%, the residual nitrate nitrogen in 0–2 m soil depths decreased by 30.5%, and the cumulative apparent loss decreased by 72.9% (all significant differences). Under the monitoring fertilization with plastic film mulching treatment, winter wheat yield increased by 9.46%–56.4%, the partial factor productivity of nitrogen increased by 21.7%–41.4%, residual nitrate nitrogen in 0–2 m soil depths decreased by 16.6%-25.8%, and cumulative apparent mineralized nitrogen content in soil increased by 89.1%–127.8% (all significant differences). Our research shows that by reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and balancing the application of phosphate and potassium fertilizer, the utilization efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer can be improved, the residual amount of nitrate nitrogen and apparent loss can be reduced, and stable production can be achieved. At the same time, film mulching with fertilization monitoring can further promote the absorption and utilization of soil nutrients by wheat. This has a significant effect on increasing wheat yield, reducing the accumulation of nitrate nitrogen, and reducing the risk of environmental pollution.

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更新日期/Last Update: 2020-06-25