|本期目录/Table of Contents|

[1]凌小芳 谢天** 李铭 吴宇.【综述】环境及化工产品中的微塑料及其防治策略[J].应用与环境生物学报,2021,27(04):1-12.[doi:10.19675/j.cnki.1006-687x.2020.08031]
 LING XiaofangXIE Tian**LI Ming WU Yu.Microplastics in the environment and chemical products and the remediation strategies[J].Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology,2021,27(04):1-12.[doi:10.19675/j.cnki.1006-687x.2020.08031]
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【综述】环境及化工产品中的微塑料及其防治策略()
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《应用与环境生物学报》[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

卷:
27卷
期数:
2021年04期
页码:
1-12
栏目:
综 述
出版日期:
2021-08-25

文章信息/Info

Title:
Microplastics in the environment and chemical products and the remediation strategies
作者:
凌小芳1 谢天23** 李铭1 吴宇1
1成都产品质量检验研究院有限责任公司 成都 610199
2中国科学院成都生物研究所中国科学院环境与应用微生物重点实验室 成都 610041
3中国科学院成都生物研究所环境微生物四川省重点实验室 成都 610041
Author(s):
LING Xiaofang1XIE Tian23**LI Ming1 WU Yu 1
1 Chengdu institute of Product Quality Inspection Co. Ltd. , Chengdu 610199 China
2 Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
3 Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
关键词:
微塑料化工产品环境污染防控策略生物修复
Keywords:
microplastic chemical products environmental pollution prevention and control strategy bioremediation
DOI:
10.19675/j.cnki.1006-687x.2020.08031
摘要:
微塑料是直径< 5 mm的塑料物质,是环境中广泛分布的持久性污染物,对人类和其他生物的健康造成威胁。本文综述微塑料的危害、污染现状及组成来源、微塑料在食品和化工产品中的赋存现状,并着重探讨化工产品及环境中微塑料的防控。微塑料对生物体具有直接危害,还可以在环境中释放塑料添加剂,并能吸附环境中的其他污染物形成复合污染。微塑料在水、大气及土壤中普遍存在,在海洋、河流及大气中的迁移作用较强。微塑料按照来源可分为初生微塑料和次生微塑料。化工产品是初生微塑料的重要来源,根据具体情况可以对其含有的微塑料采用禁用、使用替代物质、调整添加量等方式控制微塑料的使用,也可以通过产品替代控制微塑料的使用。根据环境中微塑料的污染情况,可组合使用物理、化学和生物的治理技术,重点使用包含酶、微生物或二者组合的生物修复技术对散布于水和土壤中的微塑料进行治理。目前,角质酶和Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6菌可以有效降解聚酯类塑料,而对于聚烯烃类及其他塑料,现有微生物及酶的降解效率低,降解机制尚不清楚。最后指出,检测方法、分布特征、使用情况及防控方案将是应对化工产品中微塑料问题的研究重点;实现常温下有效降解芳香族聚酯类塑料,发掘能有效降解聚烯烃类塑料的微生物和酶,解析相关的分子机制,将是生物修复微塑料的研究方向;保证生物修复技术的安全性是其应用的前提。(图1 表2 参92)
Abstract:
Plastic particles (diameter < 5 mm) are defined as microplastics (MPs), which are persistent pollutant widely distributed in the environment, threatening the health of humans and other organisms. The paper reviewed the hazards, pollution, constitutes and sources, occurrence of MPs in food and chemical products, then emphasized the prevention and control of them in chemical products and environment. Besides direct harm to organisms, MPs can also release plastic additives to the environment and absorb other pollutants in the environment forming compound pollution. MPs are ubiquitous in water, atmosphere and soil. Migration of MPs in seas, rivers and atmosphere is relatively intense. MPs can be divided into primary microplastics and secondary microplastics according to their sources. Chemical products are the main primary sources of MPs. According to the specific situation, the use of MPs in chemical products can be controlled by forbidding, using substitutes, adjusting the addition amount. The use of microplastics can also be controlled by product substitution. According to the pollution, physical, chemical and biological techniques could be combined to deal with MPs pollution in environment. Bioremediation techniques including enzymes, microorganisms or a combination of the two are preferred for the treatment of microplastics dispersed in water and soil. Nowadays, cutinase and Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 could degrade polyester MPs effectively, however, microorganisms and enzymes could not effectively degrade polyalkene and other plastics, and the degradation mechanisms are not fully understood. Finally, the paper point out: detection method, distribution characteristics, usage and control plans of MPs in chemical products will become the research focuses to deal with the use of MPs in chemical products; effectively degrading aryl polyester plastics at normal temperature, discovering new microorganisms and enzymes to effectively degrade polyalkene plastics and elucidating the molecular mechanisms will be the main research focuses for the biological remediation of MPs; assuring the safety of techniques are foundation of biological remediation techniques.

相似文献/References:

[1]蔡亚云,赵佳玥,李文锋,等.不同粒径塑料微颗粒在斑马鱼腮组织中的积累及其对蒽毒性的影响[J].应用与环境生物学报,2017,23(06):1154.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1145.2016.12051]
 CAI Yayun,ZHAO Jiayue,et al.Retention of polystyrene particles of different sizes in zebrafish gills and their effect on toxicity of anthracene to gill cells[J].Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology,2017,23(04):1154.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1145.2016.12051]

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
收稿日期 Received: 2020-08-21 接受日期 Accepted: 2020-10-12
四川省中央引导地方发展专项项目(2020ZYD024)资助
**通讯作者 Corresponding author (E-mail: xietian@cib.ac.cn)
本文为已录用的作者修定稿,尚未经编辑全面修改。
引用本文请注明出处本刊;发表刊期和页码将以正式出版时的安排为准,但DOI确定不变。

更新日期/Last Update: 2020-11-06