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[1]胡倩怡,郑平,康达.厌氧氨氧化菌的种类、特性与检测[J].应用与环境生物学报,2017,23(2):384-391.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1145.2016.04022]
 HU Qianyi,ZHENG Ping** & KANG Da.Taxonomy, characteristics, and biotechniques used for the analysis of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria[J].Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology,2017,23(2):384-391.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1145.2016.04022]
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厌氧氨氧化菌的种类、特性与检测()
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《应用与环境生物学报》[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

卷:
23卷
期数:
2017年第2期
页码:
384-391
栏目:
综述
出版日期:
2017-04-25

文章信息/Info

Title:
Taxonomy, characteristics, and biotechniques used for the analysis of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria
作者:
胡倩怡郑平康达
浙江大学环境工程系 杭州 310058
Author(s):
HU Qianyi ZHENG Ping** & KANG Da
Environmental Engineering Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
关键词:
废水生物脱氮厌氧氨氧化菌系统分类菌种特性识别检测
Keywords:
wastewater biological nitrogen removal anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AnAOB) taxonomy microbial characteristics analysis biotechniques
分类号:
Q939.9 : X52
DOI:
10.3724/SP.J.1145.2016.04022
摘要:
厌氧氨氧化是地球氮素循环的重要环节,也是废水生物脱氮和污染环境修复的重要基础;厌氧氨氧化菌作为厌氧氨氧化功能的执行者,近年来成为微生物、环境、地学等领域的研究热点. 本文从厌氧氨氧化菌种类、菌种特性及检测手段3个方面综述近年国内外厌氧氨氧化菌研究进展. 基于多相分类法,以遗传型分类为主,目前共鉴定厌氧氨氧化菌6属21种,其中Candidatus Anammoximicrobium为最新属. 不同种厌氧氨氧化菌在形态结构、细胞组成、生理生化、生态分布存在异同,对温度、盐度、有机物等环境因素的敏感度导致其生态位的差异性,有利于工程应用. 近来结合PCR-DGGE、FISH和qPCR等先进的现代分子生物学手段,已形成一套研究厌氧氨氧化菌种类、数量、分布和活性的有效方法,并获得系列基于AnAOB 16S rRNA及功能基因(nirS, hzo)的特异性引物. 最后提出完善厌氧氨氧化菌纯培物的分离方法、探明厌氧氨氧化菌的代谢途径和遗传特性、明确厌氧氨氧化菌在生境中的分布及贡献是未来研究的热点和难点. (图3 表7 参42)
Abstract:
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is not only an important part of the global nitrogen cycle, but also a vital foundation of new biological nitrogen removal technologies for wastewater treatment and environmental bioremediation. As the biocatalyst of anammox process, anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AnAOB) attract increasing attention in the fields of microbiology, environmental engineering, and geoscience with extensive research in recent years. In this study, we reviewed the newest research advance on taxonomy, characteristics, and biotechniques used for the analysis of AnAOB. In all, 6 genera containing 21 AnAOB species have been identified based on the polyphasic taxonomy by using the genotypic group-dividing method; this includes the newly discovered genus Candidatus Anammoximicrobium. Some studied species were further compared to identify the similarities and differences between their morphological, cellular components, physiological, and ecological characteristics; they were found to have different sensitivities to environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, and organic matter, which caused niche divergence among them. These species were favorable for application to environmental engineering. In addition, a series of advanced molecular biotechniques such as polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction have been successfully applied to assess species clarification, community distribution, microbial activity, and cell numbers of AnAOB. Moreover, many specific primers for AnAOB 16S rRNA or functional genes (hzo, nirS) have been developed. Furthermore, some important topics and obstacles for further research, i.e., obtaining purified AnAOB, elucidating metabolic pathways and genetic features of AnAOB, clarifying the ecological contribution of AnAOB in the environment, were proposed. The findings of this study might provide valuable information for both anammox process and AnAOB researches.

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更新日期/Last Update: 2017-04-25