|本期目录/Table of Contents|

 TANG Jiahuan,LIU Yi,ZHOU Shungui,et al.Electrochemically active biofilms: formation, characterization and application[J].Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology,2014,20(06):1096-1103.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1145.2014.03028]





Electrochemically active biofilms: formation, characterization and application
唐家桓 刘毅 周顺桂 袁勇
1中国科学院广州地球化学研究所 广州 510640 2广东省生态环境与土壤研究所 广州 510650 3中国科学院大学 北京 100049 4湖南农业大学生物科学技术学院 长沙 410128
TANG Jiahuan LIU Yi ZHOU Shungui YUAN Yong
1Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China 2Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 4College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
electrochemically active biofilms electromicrobiology extracellular electron transfer bioelectrochemical systems microbial electrosynthesis
Q939.9 : O646.54
电活性生物膜(Electrochemically active biofilms,EABs)是一类能够直接与胞外固态载体(铁氧化物、腐殖质及电极等)进行电子交换的生物膜. EABs的电子传递特性,赋予了它在环境、能源和化工等领域的广泛应用前景,已成为当前国际研究热点. 本文以革兰氏染色法为依据,分别介绍了腐败希瓦氏菌(Shewanella putrefaciens)、硫还原地杆菌(Geobacter sulfurreducens)和丁酸梭菌(Clostridium butyricum EG3)为代表的阴性和阳性电活性微生物;在普通生物膜的形成基础上,讨论了EABs的两种主要培养方法;分别从EABs输出电子与接受电子的角度,详细论述了电活性微生物与胞外载体的电子传递机制;重点阐述了利用电化学、光谱学、电子显微镜、分子生态学等多技术手段表征单个电活性微生物和整个EABs的形态、结构,以及所揭示的胞外电子传递机制和相关影响因子;对EABs在电能输出、污染物治理、有价品合成等方面应用作了详细介绍. 最后,建议对EABs的研究建立一个统一、标准的表征方法,同时应重点研究EABs接受电子的传递机制. 对这些机理的深入了解,可使得EABs在污染物治理以及有机物的电合成等方面应用早日实现规模化、产业化生产.
Microorganisms commonly form biofilms in order to strengthen their functions or survival in harsh environments. Electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) are special because they can donate electrons to, or accept electrons from, electrodes or natural analogs of electrodes such as Fe(Ⅲ) oxides and humid acids. Numerous promising applications can be developed based on EABs, including bio-remediation of polluted soils or water, electricity generation from waste materials, biosensors to monitor microbial metabolic activities, and biosynthesis of desirable products. This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 describes some Gram negative and Gram positive electroactive microbes,including Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Clostridium butyricum EG3. Section 2 presents two principal approaches for EABs cultivation after describing the development of common biofilms that are not electroactive. Section 3 introduces the major electron-exchange mechanism, including how microorganisms get electrons from electrodes and how electrons from the decomposition of organic materials by microorganisms are conducted to electrode. Section 4 introduces electrochemical, spectroscopic, microscopic and molecular ecological techniques used to characterize the morphology and structure of a single microorganism or EABs to reveal the electron transfer mechanisms and influencing factors. Applications of EABs, which include energy production, wastewater and soil pollution remediation, and chemicals electrosynthesis, are introduced. Finally, we conclude that a uniform and standard method should be built up, more efforts should be put in revealing the electron-exchange mechanism between the microorganisms and the supporters, especially about how EABs accept electrons from electrodes. More understanding of the electron-transfer mechanism and its controlling factor, shall further promote the industrial application of EABs.


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国家自然科学基金项目(21277035,41222006)、广东省科学院优秀人才基金项目(rcjj201101)和广东省科技攻关项目(2012B030800008)资助 Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21277035, 41222006), the Guangdong Provincial Key Science Foundation for Outstanding Young Talent (rcjj201101), and the Ministry of Major Science & Technology of Guangdong (2012B030800008)
更新日期/Last Update: 2015-01-06