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[1]郭妍妍,李红亮,王朋,等. 濒危驯鹿(Rangifer tarandus)秋季偏好生境的生态特征[J].应用与环境生物学报,2014,20(05):892-898.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1145.2014.01017]
 GUO Yanyan,LI Hongliang,WANG Peng,et al.Ecological characteristics of autumn preferred habitat of endangered reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in China[J].Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology,2014,20(05):892-898.[doi:10.3724/SP.J.1145.2014.01017]
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 濒危驯鹿(Rangifer tarandus)秋季偏好生境的生态特征()
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《应用与环境生物学报》[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

卷:
20卷
期数:
2014年05期
页码:
892-898
栏目:
研究论文
出版日期:
2014-10-25

文章信息/Info

Title:
Ecological characteristics of autumn preferred habitat of endangered reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in China
作者:
 郭妍妍 李红亮 王朋 冯金朝 薛达元 孟秀祥
1中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院 北京 100081
2中国人民大学环境学院 北京 100872
Author(s):
GUO Yanyan LI Hongliang WANG Peng FENG Jinchao XUE Dayuan MENG Xiuxiang
1College of Life and Environment Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China 2School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
关键词:
 驯鹿(Rangifer tarandus)生境选择食物资源人为干扰主成分分析
Keywords:
reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) habitat selection food resources anthropogenic disturbance principal component analysis
分类号:
Q149 : Q959.842
DOI:
10.3724/SP.J.1145.2014.01017
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
深入了解生境选择及偏好生境的生态特征是保育濒危驯鹿资源的关键. 于2012和2013年的9-10月间,采用样带-样线结合的调查方法,对我国大兴安岭西北麓驯鹿的秋季生境偏好进行了研究,共布设了72个利用生境样地及162个对照性非利用生境样地,对海拔和乔木郁闭度等25个生境变量进行了计测和比较,并对利用生境数据进行了主成分分析. 结果显示,与对照的非利用生境样地相比,驯鹿秋季利用生境的海拔(948.68 m ± 1.10 m)、乔木郁闭度(12.60% ± 1.99%)、乔木胸径(24.46 cm ± 1.77 cm)、乔木高度(6.33 m ± 0.47 m)、乔木密度(6.92 m2 ± 0.75/400 m2)、灌木盖度(42.14% ± 2.22%)、苔藓地衣盖度(11.94% ± 0.98%)、树桩个数(4.61 m2 ± 0.44/400 m2)及倒木数(2.08 m2 ± 0.25/400 m2)均较大(P < 0.01),但地表植被盖度(83.58% ± 1.03%)、雪深(0)、雪覆盖度(0)及枯草盖度(2.08% ± 0.25%)较小(P < 0.01). 此外,驯鹿秋季偏好选择西坡和南坡(100%)的中上坡位(70.8%)的平缓坡(81.9%)生境(P < 0.01),并多选择针叶林(56.9%)、避风性较差(52.8%)、水量适中(62.5%)、土壤湿润(94.4%)、距水源距离较近(≤1 000 m,68.1%)、距人为干扰距离较远(≥ 500 m,51.4%)及距最近猎民点较远(≥ 500 m,55.6%)的生境. 主成分分析结果表明,干扰因子(由距水源距离、水量评价、距人为干扰距离、距猎民点距离和坡位及海拔组成)、乔灌木因子(由植被类型、乔木胸径、乔木高度、乔木密度、乔木郁闭度和灌木盖度组成)、生境基底因子(由灌木盖度、树桩数、倒木数及地表植被盖度组成)、隐蔽因子(隐蔽度)和坡向因子(坡向)是影响驯鹿秋季生境选择的重要因素. 总之,驯鹿的秋季生境偏好是在多层面对其秋季食物、干扰回避及林下活动便捷等生态需求的综合适应.
Abstract:
In China, reindeer, a valuable wildlife resource, only exists in the Genhe area of Inner Mongolia. Despite their economic benefits, reindeer are listed as critically endangered in China mainly owing to loss and degradation of habitat. To sustainably conserve the reindeer population and their habitat, it is necessary to study the habitat utilization of reindeer. In September and October 2012 and 2013, autumn habitat selection and utilization patterns of reindeer were studied using both line and strip-transect surveys. Twenty-five ecological variables were measured and compared for 234 sites in the Genhe area of northwestern China. Seventy-two of all the sampling sites were designated as used habitat plots, and the others as control, non-used plots. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract the key factors influencing habitat selection. The results indicated that, compared to the non-used habitat plots, reindeer selected autumn habitats with comparatively high altitude (948.68±1.10 m), arbor canopy (12.60±1.99%), arbor density (6.92±0.75/400 m2), arbor diameter body height (DBH) (24.46±1.77 cm), arbor height (6.33±0.47 m), shrub cover (42.14±2.22%), muscus-lichen cover (11.94±0.98%) and more stump (4.61±0.44/400 m) and fallen-wood (2.08±0.25/400 m2), but with comparatively low ground-plant cover (83.58±1.03%), snow depth (no snow), snow cover (no snow) and withered-grass cover (2.08±0.25%). Moreover, the reindeer also selected habitats with intermediate upper slope positions (70.8%) in south and west slopes which were located mainly in conifer forest (56.9%) and with poor lee condition (52.8%), relative proximity to water sources (< 1 000 m, 68.1%), but certain distance from anthropogenic disturbance (≥ 500 m, 51.4%) and indigenous residence (≥ 500 m, 51.4%). The PCA results showed that the “Disturbance factor” (i.e. distance from residence and other human influence, altitude, slope position etc. ), “Tree factor” (i.e. vegetation type, arbor DBH, arbor height, and arbor density etc.), “Habitat-ground factor” (i.e. shrub cover, stump, fallen-wood and ground-plant cover), “Concealment factor”(i.e. concealment) and “Slope aspect factor” (i.e. Slope aspect) were the most important factors influencing the habitat selection of reindeer in autumn. In summary, the results indicated the autumn habitat selection of reindeer is a multidimensional process, through which reindeer adapts to the ecological needs, in particular food accessibility and avoidance of disturbance from local indigenous communities.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
 国家科技支撑计划专题项目(2013BAC09B02-6)和高等学校学科创新引智计划111项目(B08044)资助 Supported by the Sci-tech Pillar Project of China (2013BAC09B02-6) and the 111 Project (B08044)
更新日期/Last Update: 2014-10-30