|Table of Contents|

 Characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I loci exon 3 and exon 4 in three racerunner species (Squamata: Lacertidae: Eremias)(PDF)

Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

2014 05
Research Field:
Publishing date:


 Characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I loci exon 3 and exon 4 in three racerunner species (Squamata: Lacertidae: Eremias)
 YUAN Xiuyun LIU Jinlong ZENG Xiaomao GUO Xianguang
1Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
 MHC exon gene duplication trans-species polymorphism Eremias

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have been well characterized in mammals, birds, amphibians and fishes, but little is known about their organization in reptiles, despite the fact that reptiles occupy an important phylogenetic position for understanding the evolutionary history of vertebrates MHC genes. In this study we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify the genomic exon 3 and exon 4 fragments of MHC class I genes in three racerunner lizards, including viviparous Multiocellated Racerunner (Eremias multiocellata), viviparous Gobi Racerunner (Eremias przewalskii), and oviparous Ordos Racerunner (Eremias brenchleyi). We also presented the molecular characterization of class I sequences for racerunner lacertids. Gene duplication was detected in the three Eremias species, at least four MHC class I loci in Multiocellated Racerunners and Ordos Racerunners, and at least five in Gobi Racerunners. A putative class I pseudogene was inferred in Ordos Racerunner for a premature stop codon in a segment of so-called exon 3. The peptide binding region, β2-microglobulin interaction sites and a conserved cysteine residue were recognized in α2 domain encoded by exon 3. The β2-microglobulin interaction sites, CD8 molecule interaction sites and a conserved cysteine residue were recognized in α3 domain encoded by exon 4. Putative classical class I genes were expressed in the uterus of both oviparous and viviparous racerunners during pregnancy, along with some alleles unexpressed in uterine. In addition, phylogenetic reconstruction suggested the existence of trans-species polymorphism in MHC class I genes in Eremias. These findings provide clues for further investigations of co-evolution of viviparity and maternal immune system, as well as evolution of squamate MHC.



1 Zinkernagel RM, Doherty PC. Immunological surveillance against altered self components by sensitized T lymphocytesin lymphocytic choriomeningitis [J]. Nature, 1974, 251 (5475): 547-548<br/>

2 Klein J. The natural history of the major histocompatibility complex [M]. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1986<br/>

3 Geraghty DE. Structure of the HLA class I region and expression of its resident genes [J]. Curr Opin Immunol, 1993, 5 (1): 3-7<br/>

4 Stroynowski I, Lindahl KF. Antigen presentation by non-classical class I molecules [J]. Curr Opin Immunol, 1994, 6 (1): 38-44 <br/>

5 Gouin N, Wright AM, Miska KB, Parra ZE, Samollow PB, Baker ML, Miller RD. Modo-UG, a marsupial non-classical MHC class I locus [J]. Immunogenetics, 2006, 58 (5-6): 396-406<br/>

6 Moffett A, Loke C. Immunology of placentation in eutherian mammals [J]. Nat Rev Immunol, 2006, 6 (8): 584-594<br/>

7 Blackburn DG. Chorioallantoic placentation in squamate reptiles: Structure, function, development and evolution [J]. J Exp Zool, 1993, 266 (5): 414-430<br/>

8 Blackburn DG. Squmate reptiles as model organisms for the evolution of viviparity [J]. Herpetolog Mono, 2006, 20 (1): 131-146<br/>

9 Murphy BF, Thompson MB, Belov K. Evolution of viviparity and the maternal immune system: major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes in skinks [J]. Orbit, 2009, 1 (1): 1-17<br/>

10 Brandley MC, Young RL, Warren DL, Thompson MB, Wagner GP. Uterine gene expression in the live-bearing lizard, Chalcides ocellatus, reveals convergence of squamate reptile and mammalian pregnancy mechanisms [J]. Genome Biol Evol, 2012, 4 (3): 394-411<br/>

11 Grossberger D, Parham P. Reptilian class I major histocompatibility complex genes reveal conserved elements in class I structure. Immunogenetics, 1992, 36 (3): 166-174<br/>

12 Radtkey RR, Becker B, Miller RD, Riblet R, Case TJ. Variation and evolution of class I MHC in sexual and parthenogenetic geckos. Proc Biol Sci, 1996, 263 (1373): 1023-1032<br/>

13 Glaberman S, Caccone A. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (Order: Squamata; Subfamily: Iguaninae). Immunogenetics, 2008, 60 (7): 371–382<br/>

14 Glaberman S, Pasquier LD, Caccone A. Characterization of a nonclassical class I MHC gene in a reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) [J]. PLoS ONE, 2008, 3 (8): e2859<br/>

15 Babik W. Methods for MHC genotyping in non-model vertebrates [J]. Mol Ecol Resour, 2010, 10 (2): 237-251<br/>

16 Szczerbak NN. Yashchurki Palearktiki (Eremias lizards of the Palearctic) [M]. Kiev: Akademiya Nauk Ukrainskoi SSR. Institut Zoologii. Naukova Dumka (In Russian), 1974<br/>

17 郭宪光,陈达丽,万宏富,王跃招. 麻蜥属Eremias的系统学研究进展[J]. 四川动物, 2010, 29 (4): 665-672 [Guo X, Chen D, Wan H, Wang Y. Review of systematics on the racerunner lizard (Lacertidae: Eremias). Sichuan J Zool, 2010, 29 (4): 665-672]<br/>

18 Guo X, Dai X, Chen D, Papenfuss TJ, Ananjeva NB, Melnikov DA, Wang Y. Phylogeny and divergence times of some racerunner lizards (Lacertidae: Eremias) inferred from mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene segments [J]. Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2011, 61 (2): 400-412<br/>

19 Sambrook J, Russell D. Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 3rd edn [M]. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2001<br/>

20 Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP, Chenna R, McGettigan PA, McWilliam H, Valentin F, Wallace IM, Wilm A, Lopez R, Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Higgins DG. Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0 [J]. Bioinformatics, 2007, 23 (21): 2947-2948<br/>

21 Xia X. DAMBE5: a comprehensive software package for data analysis in molecular biology and evolution [J]. Mol Biol Evol, 2013, 30 (7): 1720-1728<br/>

22 Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods [J]. Mol Biol Evol, 2011, 28 (10): 2731-2739<br/>

23 Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing [J]. Nat Methods, 2012, 9 (8): 772-784<br/>

24 Schwarz GE. Estimating the dimension of a model [J]. Ann Stat, 1978, 6 (2): 461-464<br/>

25 Ronquist F, Teslenko M, van der Mark P, Ayres DL, Darling A, Höhna S, Larget B, Liu L, Suchard MA, Huelsenbeck JP. MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space [J]. Syst Biol, 2012, 61 (3): 539-542<br/>

26 戴鑫, 曾晓茂, 陈彬, 王跃招. 六种麻蜥核型研究[J]. 遗传, 2004, 26 (5): 669-675 [Dai X, Zeng XM, Chen B, Wang YZ. The research on the karyotypes of six species in the genus Eremias from China [J]. Hereditas, 2004, 26 (5): 669-675]<br/>

27 Bjorkman PJ, Saper MA, Samraoui B, Bennett WS, Strominger JL, Wiley DC. Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2 [J]. Nature, 1987, 329 (6139): 506-512<br/>

28 Siddle HV, Deakin JE, Baker ML, Miller RD, Belov K. Isolation of major histocompatibility complex Class I genes from the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) [J]. Immunogenetics, 2006, 58 (5-6): 487-493<br/>

29 Miller HC, Belov K, Daugherty CH. MHC Class I genes in the tuatara (Sphenodon spp.): evolution of the MHC in an ancient reptilian order [J]. Mol Biol Evol, 2005, 23 (5): 949-956<br/>

30 Miller HC, Andrews-Cookson M, Daugherty CH. Two patterns of variation among MHC class I loci in tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) [J]. J Hered, 2007, 98 (7): 666-677<br/>

31 Hughes AL, Nei M. Evolution of the major histocompatibility complex: independent origin of non-classical genes in different groups of mammals [J]. Mol Biol Evol, 1989, 6 (6): 559-579<br/>

32 Klein J, Sato a, Nagl S, O’hUigin C. Molecular trans-species polymorphism [J]. Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 1998, 29: 1-21<br/>

33 Klein J, Sato A, O’hUigin C. Evolution by gene duplication in the major histocompatibility complex [J]. Cytogenet Cell Genet, 1998, 80 (1-4): 123-127<br/>

34 Ottova E, Simkova A, Martin JF, de Bellocq JG, Gelnar M, Allienne JF, Morand S. Evolution and trans-species polymorphism of MHC class II β genes in cyprinid fish [J]. Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2005, 18 (3): 199-222<br/>

35 Bos DH, Waldman B. Evolution by recombination and transspecies polymorphism in the MHC class I gene of Xenopus laevis [J]. Mol Biol Evol, 2006, 23 (1): 137-143<br/>

36 赵尔宓, 赵肯堂, 周开亚. 中国动物志(爬行纲,第2卷,有鳞目, 蜥蜴亚目) [M]. 北京: 科学出版社, 1999 [Zhao EM, Zhao KT, Zhou KY. Fauna Sinica (Reptilia, Vol. 2, Squamata, Lacertidae) [M]. Beijing: Science Press, 1999


Last Update: 2014-10-30