|Table of Contents|

Regeneration and growth-promoting constructive species in the subalpine secondary shrub ecosystem of southwestern China(PDF)

Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

Issue:
2021 03
Page:
667-676
Research Field:
Publishing date:

Info

Title:
Regeneration and growth-promoting constructive species in the subalpine secondary shrub ecosystem of southwestern China
Author(s):
PANG Xueyong XIANG Shuang ZHAO Wenqiang LI Dandan & LIU Qing?
CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization & Ecological Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
Keywords:
secondary shrub constructive species regeneration succession ecological restoration subalpine forest
CLC:
-
PACS:
DOI:
10.19675/j.cnki.1006-687x.2021.02031
DocumentCode:

Abstract:
To address the lack of restoration techniques for a large number of degraded shrubs in subalpine areas, in this study, we proposed removing the restrictive environmental factors that affected the regeneration and growth of constructive tree species in the shrub ecosystem and supplementing their provenance. For ecosystems where dense shrubs inhibited the seedlings of constructive tree species, we designed a technology to improve growing conditions by appropriately adjusting the shrub crown width and removing the ground floor layer. For shrub ecosystems lacking provenance, we directly added seeds and planted seedlings on the sides of the shrubs. By monitoring the survival, growth, and microenvironment changes in the seedlings after the treatment, the following results were obtained: (1) horizontal and vertical removal of part of the shrub crown increased the basal diameter and height of spruce (Picea asperata) seedlings. Horizontal removal increased the basal diameter and height of seedlings by 51.5% and 61.6%, respectively. The increase in base diameter and height of seedlings was positively correlated with temperature after treatment. (2) After only the litter and ground cover were completely removed, the height and basal diameter of spruce seedlings transplanted in the shrub open area were 24.6%-35.8% higher than those of the control, respectively. (3) The seed germination rates of Sichuan redwood (Larix mastersiana) and spruce in the field were closed shrubland > open shrubland > grassland (P < 0.05), and the effects of nurturing methods on seed germination and preservation were micro-fertilizer > CK > micro-fertilizer + water-retaining agent > water-retaining agent (P < 0.05). (4) Without the addition of organic fertilizer, the survival rates of spruce seedlings planted in the shrub rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere areas were 56.9% and 30%, respectively. Planting at the upward side of shrubs is more favorable for seedling survival. Adding fertilizer increased the survival rate of spruce seedlings planted in non-shrub vegetation areas to 100%. These results suggest that the introduction of constructive tree species in secondary shrub ecosystems can promote the survival and preservation of seedlings. In the dense shrub area with constructive tree seedlings, the growth of seedlings was significantly improved by regulating the microenvironment that inhibited their growth. These results provide new ideas and technical approaches for the restoration of subalpine degraded forest ecosystems.

References

1 潘开文, 吴宁, 潘开忠, 陈庆恒. 关于建设长江上游生态屏障的若干问题的讨论[J]. 生态学报, 2004, 24 (3): 617-629 [Pan KW, Wu N, Pan KZ, Chen QH. A discuss ion on the issues of the re-construction of ecological shelter zone on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River [J]. Acta Ecol Sin, 2004, 24 (3): 617-629]
2 刘庆. 亚高山针叶林生态学研究[M]. 成都: 四川大学出版社, 2002 [Liu Q. Ecological Research on Subalpine Coniferous Forests in China [M]. Chengdu: Sichuan University Press, 2002]
3 李文华, 罗天祥. 中国云冷杉林生物生产力格局及其数学模型[J]. 生态学报, 1997, 17 (5): 511-518 [Li WH, Luo TX. Productivity patterns and mathematical models of spruce-fir forests in China [J]. Acta Ecol Sin, 1997, 17 (5): 511-518]
4 吴彦, 刘庆, 乔永康, 潘开文, 赵常明, 陈庆恒. 亚高山针叶林不同恢复阶段群落物种多样性变化及其对土壤理化性质的影响[J]. 植物生态学报, 2001, 25 (6): 648-655 [Wu Y, Liu Q, Qiao YK, Pan KW, Zhao CM, Chen QH. Species diversity changes in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages and their effects on soil properties [J]. Acta Phytol Sin, 2001, 25 (6): 648-655]
5 庞学勇, 刘庆, 刘世全, 吴彦, 林波, 何海, 张宗锦. 川西亚高山云杉人工林土壤质量性状演变[J]. 生态学报, 2004, 24 (2): 261-267 [Pang XY, Liu Q, Liu SQ, Wu Y, Lin B, He H, Zhang ZJ. Changes of soil fertility quality properties under subalpine spruce plantation in western Sichuan [J]. Acta Ecol Sin, 2004, 24 (2): 261-267]
6 Yin HJ, Liu Q, He H. Seed rain and soil seed bank of Picea asperata Mast. in subalpine coniferous forest of western Sichuan, China [J]. Plant Biosyst, 2007, 141 (3): 314-322
7 史立新, 王金锡, 宿以明, 侯广维. 川西米亚罗地区暗针叶林采伐迹地早期植被演替过程的研究[J]. 植物生态学与地植物学学报, 1988, 12 (4): 306-313 [Shi LX, Wang JX, Su YM, Hou GW. Earlier-stage succession of vegetation on the clear-cuts in Miyaluo forest district in western Sichuan [J]. Acta Phytoecol Geobot Sin, 1988, 12 (4): 306-313]
8 张慧, 周国模, 白尚斌, 王懿祥, 尤誉杰, 朱婷婷, 张华锋. 目标树抚育对亚热带天然次生灌丛群落结构和多样性的影响[J]. 应用生态学报, 2017, 28 (5): 1414-1420 [Zhang H, Zhou GM, Bai SB, Wang YX, You YJ, Zhu TT, Zhang HF. Effects of target tree tending on community structure and diversity in subtropical natural secondary shrubs [J]. Chin J Appl Ecol, 2017, 28 (5): 1414-1420]
9 胡会峰, 王志恒, 刘国华, 傅伯杰. 中国主要灌丛植被碳储量[J]. 植物生态学报, 2006, 30 (4): 539-544 [Hu HF, Wang ZH, Liu GH, Fu BJ. Vegetation carbon storage of major shrublands in China [J]. Chin J Plant Ecol, 2006, 30 (4): 539-544]
10 Ni J. Carbon storage in grasslands of China [J]. J Arid Environ, 2002, 50 (2): 205-218
11 赵敏, 周广胜. 中国森林生态系统的植物碳贮量及其影响因子分析[J]. 地理科学, 2004, 24 (1): 50-54 [Zhao M, Zhou GS. Carbon storage of forest vegetation and its relationship with climatic factors [J]. Sci Geogr Sin, 24 (1): 50-54]
12 刘洋, 张健, 杨万勤, 李贤伟, 闫帮国, 黄旭, 苏江峰, 赖刚. 自然恢复过程中川西亚高山林草交错带地被物储量及持水性能研究[J]. 水土保持学报, 2009, 23 (3): 173-178 [Liu Y, Zhang J, Yang WQ, Li XW, Yan BG, Huang X, Su JF, Lai G. Ground cover reserves and water holding capacity of forest-grassland ecotone in natural recovery process in western Sichuan [J]. J Soil Water Conserv, 2009, 23 (3): 173-178]
13 何露露, 强薇, 张燕, 刘银, 刘兵, 庞学勇. 川西亚高山针叶林次生演替对土壤持水量的影响[J]. 应用与环境生物学报, 2021, 27 (3): 639-647 [He LL, Qiang W, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Liu B, Pang XY. Effects of secondary succession on soil water holding capacity of subalpine coniferous forest in western Sichuan, China [J]. Chin J Appl Environ Biol, 2021, 27 (3): 639-647]
14 West DC, Shugart HH, Botkin DB. Forest Succession: Concepts and Application [M]. New York: Springer, 1981: 185-211
15 Wang J, Ren H, Yang L, Duan WJ. Establishment and early growth of introduced indigenous tree species in typical plantations and shrubland in South China [J]. For Ecol Manag, 2009, 258 (7): 1293-1300
16 Asanok L, Marod D, Duengkae P, Pranmongkold U, Kurokawaa H, Aibaa M, Katabuchia M, Nakashizukaa T. Relationships between functional traits and the ability of forest tree species to reestablish in secondary forest and enrichment plantations in the uplands of northern Thailand [J]. For Ecol Manag, 2013, 296: 9-23
17 彭少麟, 陆宏芳. 恢复生态学焦点问题[J]. 生态学报, 2003, 23 (7): 1249-1257 [Peng SL, Lu HF. Some key points of restoration ecology [J]. Acta Ecol Sin, 2003, 23 (7): 1249-1257]
18 Gómez-Aparicio L, Zamora R, Gómez J, Hódar J, Castro J, Baraza E. Applying plant facilitation to forest restoration: a meta-analysis of the use of shrubs as nurse plants [J]. Ecol Appl, 2004, 14 (4): 1128-1138
19 任海, 王俊, 陆宏芳. 恢复生态学的理论与研究进展[J]. 生态学报, 2014, 34 (15): 4117-4124 [Ren H, Wang J, Lu HF. Theories and research advances of restoration ecology [J]. Acta Ecol Sin, 2014, 34 (15): 4117-4124]
20 尤誉杰, 王懿祥, 张华锋, 邱烷婷, 吴敏娟. 不同人为干扰措施对天然次生灌丛土壤肥力及蓄水能力的影响[J]. 生态学报, 2018, 38 (3): 1097-1105 [You YJ, Wang YX, Zhang HF, Qiu WT, Wu MJ. Effects of different human disturbances on soil water conversation and fertility of natural secondary shrub [J]. Acta Ecol Sin, 2018, 38 (3): 1097-1105]
21 López-Pintor A, Sal AG, Benayas JMR. Shrubs as a source of spatial heterogeneitythe case of Ratama sphaerocarpa in Mediterranean pastures of central Spain [J]. Acta Oecol, 2006, 29 (3): 247-255
22 Madrigal-gonzalez J, Garcia-rodriguez JA, Puerto-martin A, Fernandez-santos B, Alonso-rojo P. Scale-dependent effects of pines on the herbaceous layer diversity in a semi-arid Mediterranean ecosystem [J]. Commun Ecol, 2010, 11 (1): 77-83
23 彭海英, 李小雁, 童绍玉. 内蒙古典型草原小叶锦鸡儿灌丛化对水分再分配和利用的影响[J]. 生态学报, 2014, 34 (9): 2256-2265 [Peng HY, Li XY, Tong SY. Effects of shrub (Caragana microphalla Lam.) encroachment on water redistribution and utilization in the typical steppe of Inner Mongolia [J]. Acta Ecol Sin, 2014, 34 (9): 2256-2265]
24 Alexandra KU, Peter JW, Jeanne CC, Benjamin WS. Shrub facilitation of tree establishment varies with ontogenetic stage across environmental gradients [J]. New Phytol, 2019, 223: 1795-1808
25 Brantley ST, Young DR. Contribution of sunflecks is minimal in expanding shrub thickets compared to temperate forest [J]. Ecology, 2009, 90: 1021-1029
26 Meziane D, Shipley B. Interacting determinants of specific leaf area in 22 herbaceous species: effects of irradiance and nutrient availability [J]. Plant Cell Environ, 1999, 22: 447-459
27 Lucas-Borja ME, Bastida F, Nicolás C, Moreno JL, Cerro A, Andrés M. Influence of forest cover and herbaceous vegetation on the microbiological and biochemical properties of soil under Mediterranean humid climate [J]. Eur J Soil Biol, 2010, 46 (5): 273-279
28 张远东, 刘世荣, 马姜明. 川西高山和亚高山灌丛的地被物及土壤持水性能[J]. 生态学报, 2006, 26 (9): 2775-2782 [Zhang YD, Liu SR, Ma JM. Water holding capacity of surface cover and soil of alpine and sub-alpine shrub in western Sichuan, China [J]. Acta Ecol Sin, 2006, 26 (9): 2775-2782]
29 Dupuy JM, Chazdon RL. Interacting effects of canopy gap, understory vegetation and leaf litter on tree seedling recruitment and composition in tropical secondary forests [J]. For Ecol Manag, 2008, 255 (11): 3716-3725
30 Chomel M, Guittonny-Larchevêque M, Fernandez C, Gallet C, DesRochers A, Paré D, Jackson BG, Baldy V. Plant secondary metabolites: a key driver of litter decomposition and soil nutrient cycling [J]. J Ecol, 2016, 104 (6): 1527-1541
31 Urza AK, Weisberg PJ, Chambers JC, Sullivan BW. Shrub facilitation of tree establishment varies with ontogenetic stage across environmental gradients [J]. New Phytol, 2019, 223: 1795-1808
32 Collins CG, Spasojevic MJ, Alados CL, Aronson EL, Benavides JC, Cannone N, Caviezel C, Grau O, Guo H, Kudo G, Kuhn NJ, Müllerová J, Phillips ML, Pombubpa N, Reverchon F, Shulman HB, Stajich JE, Stokes A, Weber SE, Diez JM Belowground impacts of alpine woody encroachment are determined by plant traits, local climate, and soil conditions [J]. Glob Chang Biol, 2020, 26: 7112-7127
33 Niinemets ?. Responses of forest trees to single and multiple environmental stresses from seedlings to mature plants: past stress history, stress interactions, tolerance and acclimation [J]. For Ecol Manag, 2010, 260: 1623-1639
34 Holmgren M, G?mez-Aparicio L, Quero JL, Valladares F. Non-linear effects of drought under shade: reconciling physiological and ecological models in plant communities [J]. Oecologia, 2012, 169: 293-305
35 Filazzola A, Lortie CJ. A systematic review and conceptual framework for the mechanistic pathways of nurse plants [J]. Glob Ecol Biogeogr, 2014, 23: 1335-1345
36 Sthultz CM, Gehring CA, Whitham TG. Shifts from competition to facilitation between a foundation tree and a pioneer shrub across spatial and temporal scales in a semiarid woodland [J]. New Phytol, 2007, 173: 135-145
37 Ziffer-Berger J, Weisberg PJ, Cablk ME, Moshe Y, Osem Y. Shrubs facilitate pine colonization by controlling seed predation in dry Mediterranean dwarf shrublands [J]. J Arid Environ, 2017, 147: 34-39
38 潘刚, 皱联付, 方江平. “三江流域”地区植被恢复重建试验研究[J]. 福建林业科技, 2008, 35 (4): 111-114 [Pan G, Zou LF, Fang JP. Study on restoration and reconstruction of the vegetation in Three Rivers Watershed [J]. J Fujian For Sci Technol, 2008, 35 (4): 111-114]
39 Dakora FD, Phillips DA. Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments [J]. Plant Soil, 2002, 245: 35-17
40 Keiluweit M, Bougoure JJ, Nico PS, Pett-Ridge J, Weber PK, Kleber M. Mineral protection of soil carbon counteracted by root exudates [J]. Nat Clim Chang, 2005, 5: 588-595
41 Ohta T, Hiura T. Root exudation of low-molecular-mass-ogranic acids by six tree species alters the dynamics of calcium and magnesium in soil [J]. Can J Soil Sci, 2016, 96: 199-206
42 Arocena JM, Glowa KR. Mineral weathering in ectomycorr-hizosphere of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) as revealed by soil solution composition [J]. For Ecol Manag, 2000, 133: 61-70
43 Jentschke G, Brandes B, Kuhn AJ, Schroder WH, Becker JS, Godbold DL. The mycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus transports magnesium to Norway spruce seedlings. Evidence from stable isotope labeling [J]. Plant Soil, 2000, 220: 243- 246
44 Hashimoto Y, Hyakumachi M. Quantities and types of ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi associated with Betula platyphylla var. japonica seedlings during the initial stage of establishment of vegetation after disturbance [J]. Ecol Res, 2000, 15: 21-31
45 马学发, 卫月华, 梁凤和, 钟兆华, 孙志虎, 刘力铭, 韩子丰. 施肥对杂种落叶松人工林幼龄林初期生长的影响[J]. 林业科技情报, 2020, 52 (3): 6-8 [Ma XF, Wei YH, Liang FH, Zhong ZH, Sun ZH, Liu LM, Han ZF. Effects of fertilization on the early growth of second rotation hybrid larch plantation [J]. For Sci Technol Inform, 2020, 52 (3): 6-8]
46 张启腾. 不同施肥量对杉木人工林幼林的生长影响分析[J]. 绿色科技, 2020, 13: 159-161 [Zhang QT. Effects of different fertilizer amounts on the growth of young forest in Chinese fir plantation [J]. J Green Sci Technol, 2020, 13: 159-161]

Memo

Memo:
-
Last Update: 2021-06-25