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Microplastics in the environment and chemical products and remediation strategies(PDF)

Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

2021 04
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Microplastics in the environment and chemical products and remediation strategies
LING Xiaofang1 XIE Tian2 3? LI Ming1 & WU Yu1
1 Chengdu Institute of Product Quality Inspection Co. Ltd., Chengdu 610199, China2 Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China3 Key Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
microplastic chemical product environmental pollution prevention and control strategy bioremediation

Plastic particles (diameter < 5 mm) are defined as microplastics (MPs), which are persistent pollutants that are widely distributed in the environment, threatening the health of humans and other organisms. This study reviewed the hazards, pollution, constituents and sources, and occurrence of MPs in food and chemical products and emphasized their prevention and control in chemical products and the environment. In addition to direct harm to organisms, MPs can release plastic additives to the environment and absorb other pollutants in the environment, resulting in compound pollution. MPs are ubiquitous in the water, atmosphere, and soil. The migration of MPs in seas, rivers, and the atmosphere is intense. MPs can be divided into primary and secondary MPs according to their sources. Chemical products are the primary source of MPs. According to the specific situation, using MPs in chemical products can be controlled by forbidding, using substitutes, and adjusting the amount added. The use of MPs can also be controlled by product substitution. According to the pollution, physical, chemical, and biological techniques can be combined to deal with MP pollution in the environment. Bioremediation techniques, including enzymes, microorganisms, or a combination of the two, are preferred for the treatment of MPs dispersed in water and soil. Currently, cutinase and Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 can degrade polyester MPs effectively; however, microorganisms and enzymes cannot effectively degrade polyalkene and other plastics, and the degradation mechanisms are not fully understood. Finally, this study highlighted that the detection method, distribution characteristics, usage, and control plans of MPs in chemical products will become the research focus to manage the use of MPs in chemical products, degrading aryl polyester plastics at normal temperatures, and discovering new microorganisms and enzymes to effectively degrade polyalkene plastics. Moreover, elucidating the molecular mechanisms will be the main research focus for the biological remediation of MPs; assuring the safety of techniques is the foundation of biological remediation techniques.


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Last Update: 2021-08-25