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Advances in microbial mitigation of cadmium toxicity in rice(PDF)

Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

2020 05
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Advances in microbial mitigation of cadmium toxicity in rice
ZHUO Chen CHEN Qi SU Zengqiang LI Huashou CHEN Guikui & HE Hongzhi?
Key Laboratory of Agro-Environment in the Tropics of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Natural Resources and Environment of South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
rice microorganism cadmium heavy metal stress

At present, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the food crop with the most excessive heavy metal content. A solution for safe cultivation is a priority for farmland that is located in moderately and lightly cadmium (Cd)-polluted areas. Safe production of rice can be realized by reducing the bioavailability of Cd in soil and preventing its uptake by rice roots and translocation to grains. In recent years, many studies have shown that through the use of microbial agents, the toxic effect of Cd on rice can be alleviated, and the content of Cd in grains can be reduced. This paper reviewed the recent advances in microbial mitigation of Cd stress on rice and its mechanisms over the past five years. The latest research results show that microorganisms that can alleviate the toxicity of Cd to rice include bacteria, fungi, and green algae, among which bacteria are the majority. At the same time, the resistance of different microorganisms to Cd varies greatly. Microbial inoculation reduced Cd content in rice grains by 20%-74.2%, but only some of the microorganisms could reduce the Cd content to the recommended edible level. The main mechanisms of microbial mitigation of the toxic effects of Cd on rice include: (1) Reducing the biological availability of Cd in soil through fixing by microbial cells directly or by extracellular secretion produced by microbial cells. (2) Regulating the absorption and transportation of Cd by rice by promoting root iron membrane formation, by changing transport protein gene expression, altering distribution, and chemical forms of Cd in rice. (3) Enhancing the antioxidant capacity of rice, i.e., the activity of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant content in plants. (4) Promoting the secretion of growth-promoting substances, such as plant hormones. (5) Altering soil physical and chemical properties, as well as the soil microbial community composition. These studies indicate that the application potential of microorganisms in promoting Cd resistance in rice and reducing Cd content in grains is tremendous, but the current related research still focuses on unreasonable principles of microbial screening, has a limited strain screening scope, is limited to laboratory hydroponic or potted experiments, and has shown a limited ability to decrease Cd found in grain. In addition, the mechanisms by which microorganisms regulate the uptake and transport of Cd in rice remains unclear. Thus, future studies should focus on the mechanisms of microbial mitigation of Cd toxicity to rice, and, in addition, an evaluation of the field application should be strengthened so as to realize the potential use of this environment-friendly technology as soon as possible.


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Last Update: 2020-10-25