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Electrochemically active biofilms: formation, characterization and application(PDF)

Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

2014 06
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Electrochemically active biofilms: formation, characterization and application
TANG Jiahuan LIU Yi ZHOU Shungui YUAN Yong
1Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China 2Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 4College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
electrochemically active biofilms electromicrobiology extracellular electron transfer bioelectrochemical systems microbial electrosynthesis
Q939.9 : O646.54

Microorganisms commonly form biofilms in order to strengthen their functions or survival in harsh environments. Electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) are special because they can donate electrons to, or accept electrons from, electrodes or natural analogs of electrodes such as Fe(Ⅲ) oxides and humid acids. Numerous promising applications can be developed based on EABs, including bio-remediation of polluted soils or water, electricity generation from waste materials, biosensors to monitor microbial metabolic activities, and biosynthesis of desirable products. This paper is organized as follows. Section 1 describes some Gram negative and Gram positive electroactive microbes,including Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Clostridium butyricum EG3. Section 2 presents two principal approaches for EABs cultivation after describing the development of common biofilms that are not electroactive. Section 3 introduces the major electron-exchange mechanism, including how microorganisms get electrons from electrodes and how electrons from the decomposition of organic materials by microorganisms are conducted to electrode. Section 4 introduces electrochemical, spectroscopic, microscopic and molecular ecological techniques used to characterize the morphology and structure of a single microorganism or EABs to reveal the electron transfer mechanisms and influencing factors. Applications of EABs, which include energy production, wastewater and soil pollution remediation, and chemicals electrosynthesis, are introduced. Finally, we conclude that a uniform and standard method should be built up, more efforts should be put in revealing the electron-exchange mechanism between the microorganisms and the supporters, especially about how EABs accept electrons from electrodes. More understanding of the electron-transfer mechanism and its controlling factor, shall further promote the industrial application of EABs.


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