|Table of Contents|

Inflammatory effects of SO2 inhalation at low concentration in rat cortex(PDF)

Chinese Journal of Applied & Environmental Biology[ISSN:1006-687X/CN:51-1482/Q]

2015 02
Research Field:
Publishing date:


Inflammatory effects of SO2 inhalation at low concentration in rat cortex
YAO Gaoyi SANG Nan
1College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China 2Research Center of Environment and Health, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China
sulfur dioxide cerebral cortex gliacyte inflammatory cytokines extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 cAMP response element-binding protein

Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a ubiquitous air pollutant, is now being considered to be involved in neurotoxicity and many brain disorders via neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the impact of chronical SO2 inhalation on neuronal function. This paper aimed to investigate the impacts of chronical SO2 inhalation at low concentration on inflammation in rat cortex. Wistar rats were treated with different concentrations of SO2 (3.5 and 7 mg/m3) or filtered air 6 hours per day for 4 weeks, and the reactive astrocytes and microglia in rat cerebral cortex were determined by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rat cerebral cortex were investigated by qRT-PCR. The expression of neuroplasticity related proteins, phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response-element binding protein (p-CREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase subtype 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) were investigated by immunoblot. The results showed that SO2 inhalation significantly stimulated activation of astroglial cells and inflammatory cytokine releases in rat cerebral cortex. The mRNA expression of TNFα, IL-1β, COX-2 and iNOS in rats treated with higher concentration of SO2 were 1.68, 1.58, 1.59 and 1.45 folds, respectively, higher than that of the control. Moreover, the expression of p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB in rats exposed to the higher concentration SO2 was 73% and 74% of that of the control. The results indicated that SO2 inhalation may cause neurological damage in rat cerebral cortex through neuroinflammation and abnormity of signal transduction in neuronal cytoplasm and gene transcription in the nucleus.


1 Hong YC, Lee JT, Kim H, Ha EH, Schwartz J, Christiani DC. Effects of air pollutants on acute stroke mortality [J]. Environ Health Perspect, 2002, 110 (2): 187-191
2 Kampaa M, Castanas E. Human health effects of air pollution [J]. Environ Pollut, 2008, 151 (2): 362-367
3 Szyszkowicz M, Rowe BH, Kaplan GG. Ambient sulphur dioxide exposure and emergency department visits for migraine in Vancouver, Canada [J]. Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 2009, 22 (1): 7-12
4 Raison CL, Capuron L, Miller AH. Cytokines sing the blues: inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression [J]. Trends Immunol, 2006, 27 (1): 24-31
5 Sama P, Long TC, Hester S, Tajuba J, Parker J, Chen LC, Veronesi B. The cellular and genomic response of an immortalized microglia cell line (BV2) to concentrated ambient particulate matter [J]. Inhal Toxicol, 2007, 19 (13): 1079-1087
6 Calderon-Garciduenas L, Reed W, Maronpot RR, Henríquez-Roldán C, Delgado-Chavez R, Calderón-Garcidue?as A, Dragustinovis I, Franco-Lira M, Aragón-Flores M, Solt AC, Altenburg M, Torres-Jardón R, Swenberg JA. Brain inflammation and Alzheimer’s-like pathology in individuals exposed to severe air pollution [J]. Toxicol Pathol, 2004, 32 (6): 650-658
7 Calderon-Garciduenas L, Solt AC, Henríquez-Roldán C, Torres-Jardón R, Nuse B, Herritt L, Villarreal-Calderón R, Osnaya N, Stone I, García R, Brooks DM, González-Maciel A, Reynoso-Robles R, Delgado-Chávez R, Reed W. Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults [J]. Toxicol Pathol, 2008, 36 (2): 289-310
8 Clark IA, Alleva LM, Vissel B. The roles of TNF in brain dysfunction and disease [J]. Pharmacol Ther, 2010, 128 (3): 519-548
9 孟紫强, 李君灵. 二氧化硫生物学研究进展: 从毒理学到生理学生理学报[J]. 生理学报, 2011, 63 (6): 593-600 [Meng ZQ, Li JL. Progress in sulfur dioxide biology: from toxicology to physiology [J]. Acta Physiol Sin, 2011, 63 (6): 593-600]
10 武冬梅, 孟紫强, 耿红, 白伟. SO2吸入对小鼠组织谷胱甘肽氧化还原系统的影响[J]. 应用与环境生物学报, 2003, 9 (2): 163-166 [Wu DM, Meng ZQ, Geng H, Bai W. Effects of sulphur dioxide inhalation on glutathione redox system in mice organs [J]. Chin J App Environ Biol, 2003, 9 (2): 163-166]
11 Sang N, Yun Y, Li HY, Hou L, Han M, Li GK. SO2 inhalation contributes to the development and progression of ischemic stroke in the brain [J]. Toxicol Sci, 2010, 114 (2): 226-236
12 桑楠, 云洋, 侯丽, 李广科. SO2吸入对大鼠海马组织炎性因子水平、钙稳态和即早基因表达的影响[J]. 环境科学学报, 2008, 28 (11): 2315-2320 [Sang N, Yun Y, Hou L, Li GK. SO2 inhalation-induced effects on cytokine level, intracellular Ca2+ content and the expression of immediate early gene in rat hippocampus [J]. Acta Sci Circumst, 2008, 28 (11): 2315-2320]
13 Sang N, Yun Y, Yao GY, Li HY, Guo L, Li GK. SO2-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by cyclooxygenases-2-derived prostaglandin E2 and its downstream signaling pathway in rat hippocampal neurons [J]. Toxicol Sci., 2011, 124 (2): 400-413
14 Teeling JL, Perry VH. Systemic infection and inflammation in acute CNS injury and chronic neurodegeneration: underlying mechanisms [J]. Neuroscience, 2009, 158 (3): 1062-1073
15 Merrill JE, Benveniste EN. Cytokines in inflammatory brain lesions: helpful and harmful [J]. Trends Neurosci, 1996, 19 (8): 331-338
16 Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Totsuka M, Sato K, Sugawara K. Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics [J]. Exerc Immunol Rev, 2002, 8: 6-48
17 Rothwell NL, Hopkis SJ. Cytokines and nervous systemⅡ: actions and mechanisms of action [J]. Trends Neurosci, 1995, 18 (3): 130-136
18 Yang H, Chen C. Cyclooxygenase-2 in synaptic signaling [J]. Curr Pharm Des, 2008, 14 (14): 1443-1451
19 Sang N, Zhang J, Marcheselli V, Bazan NG, Chen C. Postsynaptically synthesized prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) modulates hippocampal synaptic transmission via a presynaptic PGE2 EP2 receptor [J]. J Neurosci, 2005, 25 (43): 9858-9870
20 Sakamoto K, Karelina K, Obrietan K. Obrietan CREB: a multifaceted regulator of neuronal plasticity and protection [J]. J Neurochem, 2011, 116 (1): 1-9
21 Hu Y, Liu MY, Liu P, Dong X, Boran AD. Neuroprotective effects of 3,6’-disinapoyl sucrose through increased BDNF levels and CREB phosphorylation via the CaMKII and ERK1/2 pathway [J]. J Mol Neurosci, 2014, 53 (4): 600-607


Last Update: 2015-04-28